Symbolic capital and the problem of navigating English language teacher practice: the case of Indonesian pesantren
Keywords:English language teaching (ELT), Indonesia, pesantren, teacher practice, symbolic capital
English is the most widely taught and learned language in the world. Within the broader literatures on the worldwide spread and dominance of English as a key skill for 21st century education, the use of English(es) and English Language Teaching (ELT) in the context of schooling in Asian countries represent an important research direction. Our paper contributes to these debates by exploring the problem of English language teachers’ beliefs about their pedagogical practices in Indonesian pesantren schools. The system of religious pesantren schools provides a unique research context to examine teacher practice in classrooms where English is not assigned the assumed de facto status of a ‘global lingua franca’. In engaging a Bourdieusian lens, this paper explores teachers’ perceptions of the (lack of) symbolic and linguistic capital of English language learning in pesantren, the emergent tensions, and how these frame teacher beliefs and practice. In so doing, this paper aims to contribute to the broader debates in the field that seek to critically analyse and reframe the hegemonic status of English as a global educational commodity of political-economic power.
Afdian, S., & Wahyuni, D. (2020). Indonesian senior high School students’ attitude towards literature in English. Journal of English Language Teaching, 9(1), 160–172. https://doi.org/10.24036/jelt.v9i1.107889
Aladdin, A. (2010). Non-Muslim Malaysian learners of Arabic (NMMLAs): An investigation of their attitudes and motivation towards learning Arabic as a foreign language in multiethnic and multicultural Malaysia. Procedia –Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1805–1811. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.404
Arber, R., & Blackmore, J. (2020). Rethinking Languages education: Dismantling instrumentalist agendas. In R. Arber, M. Weinmann & J. Blackmore (Eds.). Rethinking Languages Education: Directions, Challenges and Innovations. Taylor & Francis.
Bathmaker, A. M. (2015). Thinking with Bourdieu: thinking after Bourdieu. Using ‘field’ to consider in/equalities in the changing field of English higher education. Cambridge Journal of Education, 45(1), 61–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2014.988683
Bourdieu, P. (2014). On the Stage. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J-C. (1990). Reproduction in Education, Society & Culture. London: Sage.
Bourdieu, P. (1979). Symbolic Power. Critique of Anthropology, 4(13-14), 77-85.
Buehl, M. M., & Beck, S. J. (2014). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and teachers’ practices. In H. Fives & M. G. Gill (Eds.) The International Handbook of Research on Teachers’ Beliefs (pp. 66–84). Abingdon: Routledge.
De Swaan, A. (2001). Words of the World. The Global Language System. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Dharmaputra, G. A. (2019). Language Policy, Ideology and Language Attitudes: A Study of Indonesian Parents and their Choice of Language in the Home. [Doctoral dissertation. The University of Sydney]. Retrieved from https://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/handle/2123/20291.
Ekawati, D. (2019). Urgency of Arabic in Islamic Education. International Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, 1(02), 209–222. https://doi.org/10.32332/ijalt.v1i02.1792
Fahrudin, D. (2012). English language teaching in Pesantren institutions in Indonesia: From colonial to global perspectives.
Prosiding The 4th International Conference on Indonesian Studies: “Unity, Diversity and Future,” 261–277. Retrieved from https://icssis.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/09102012-22.pdf
Fisher-Ari, T., Kavanagh, K. M., & Martin, A. (2017). Sisyphean neoliberal reforms: the intractable mythology of student growth and achievement master narratives within the testing and TFA era, Journal of Education Policy, 32(3), 255–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2016.1247466
Flores, N. (2013). The Unexamined Relationship between Neoliberalism and Plurilingualism: A Cautionary Tale. TESOL Quarterly, 47(3), 500–520. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.114
Foye, K. (2014). Religion in the ELT classroom: Teachers’ perspectives. The Language Teacher, 38(2), 5–12. Retrieved from https://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/38.2-2.pdf
Galloway, N., & Rose, H. (2015). Introducing global Englishes. New York: Routledge.
Ha, P. L. (2013). Issues surrounding English, the internationalisation of higher education and national cultural identity in Asia: a focus on Japan, Critical Studies in Education, 54(2), 160–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2013.781047
Heller, M., & Duchêne, A. 2016. Treating language as an economic resource: discourse, data and debate. In Coupland, N. (Ed.), Sociolinguistics: Theoretical Debates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 139–156.
Hefner, R. W. (2016). Indonesia. In R. C. Martin (ed.) Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (Second edition)(pp. 512–516). Farmington Hills: Macmillan, Cengage Learning.
Hidayat, M. (2007). The Teaching of English at Pondok Pesantren Attarbiyah Al-Islamiyyah in Paiton Probolinggo. [Doctoral dissertation, The State Islamic University of Malang]. Retrieved from http://etheses.uin-malang.ac.id/4590/
Irwansyah, D. (2018). Teaching English at Indonesian Islamic Higher Education: An Epistemological Perspective. Dinamika Ilmu, 18(1), 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.21093/di.v18i1.1120
Jenkins, J. (2017). ELF and WE: Competing or complementing paradigms? In E. L. Low & A. Pakir (Eds.), World Englishes: Re-thinking paradigms (pp. 52–68). New York: Routledge.
Kharismawan, P. Y. (2018). A Correlational Study between Language Attitudes and English Language Orientation of
Indonesian EFL Learners. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network Journal, 1(1), 150–169. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1225832
Lin, A. M.Y., & Motha, S. (2020). ‘Curses in TESOL’: Postcolonial Desires for Colonial English. In R. Arber, M. Weinmann & J. Blackmore, J. (Eds.)(2020). Rethinking Languages Education: Directions, Challenges and Innovations (pp.15–35). Abingdon: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315107974
Lauder, A. (2008). the Status and Function of English in Indonesia: a Review of Key Factors. Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia, 12(1), 9-20. doi:10.7454/mssh.v12i1.128
León M., (2018) “Standard Language Ideologies, World Englishes, and English Language Teaching: An Overview”, Journal of Second Language Acquisition and Teaching, 25, 44–62. Retrieved from https://journals.librarypublishing.arizona.edu/jslat/article/id/297/
Ma’arif, S. (2018). Education as a foundation of humanity: Learning from the pedagogy of pesantren in Indonesia.
Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 9(2), 104–123. Retrieved from https://jsser.org/index.php/jsser/article/view/256
Mambu, J. (2017). Addressing Religious Issues and Power in ELT Classrooms: Voices from English Teachers in Indonesia.
International Journal of Christianity and English Language Teaching, 4(1), Article 4. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.biola.edu/ijc-elt/vol4/iss1/4
Maragustam, M. (2016). The Reformation of Pesantren Education System: The Study on Abdul Wahid Hasyim Thoughts the Perspective of Islamic Education Philosophy. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 5(2), 325–346. https://doi.org/10.14421/jpi.2016.52.325-346
Martin, J. L. (2003). What is Field Theory? American Journal of Sociology, 109(1), 1–49. https://doi.org/10.1086/375201
Marginson, S. (1999). After globalization: emerging politics of education, Journal of Education Policy, 14(1), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/026809399286477
Menken, K., & García, O. (Eds.). 2010. Negotiating Language Policies in Schools: Educators as Policymakers. New York: Routledge.
Nailufar, Y. (2018). Analysis of motivations to study English and Arabic. English Education Journal, 9(2), 328–345. Retrieved from http://jurnal.unsyiah.ac.id/EEJ/article/view/11552/9267
Nilan, P. (2009). The “spirit of education” in Indonesian Pesantren. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30(2), 219–232. https://doi.org/10.1080/01425690802700321
Nolan, K., & Walshaw, M. (2012). Playing the game: A Bourdieuian perspective of pre-service inquiry teaching. Teaching Education, 23(4), 345–363. https://doi.org/10.1080/10476210.2012.685709
Nowell, L., Norris, J., White, D., & Moules, N. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria.
International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 16, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847
O’Regan, J. (2020). Global English and political economy: an immanent critique. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis.
Pennycook, A. (2020). Translingual entanglements of English. World Englishes, 39(2), 222–235. https://doi.org/10.1111/weng.12456
Rasyid, R. (2012). The Integration of the National Curriculum into Pesantren Education System. JISCA, 1(2), 1–16. http://journal.uin-alauddin.ac.id/index.php/jicsa/article/view/726
Razfar, A., & Rumenapp, J. C. (2012). Language ideologies in English learner classrooms: critical reflections and the role of explicit awareness, Language Awareness, 21:4, 347-368, doi:10.1080/09658416.2011.616591
Rizvi, F., & Lingard, B., (2009). Globalizing Education Policy, Routledge: London & New York.
Rose, H., & Montakantiwong, A. (2018). A tale of two teachers: A duoethnography of the realistic and idealistic successes and failures of teaching English as an International Language. RELC Journal, 49(1), 88–101. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217746206
Simpson, W., & O’Regan, J. P. (2018). Fetishism and the language commodity: a materialist critique. Language Sciences, 70, 155–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langsci.2018.05.009
Sukyadi, D. (2015). The teaching of English in secondary schools. In B. Spolsky & S. Kiwan (Eds.), Secondary School English Education in Asia: From policy to practice (pp. 123–147). Abingdon: Routledge.
Swartz, D. L. (2013). Symbolic Power, Politics and Intellectuals. The Political Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Tahir, S. Z. Bin. (2017). Multilingual teaching and learning at Pesantren Schools in Indonesia. Asian EFL Journal, 98, 74–94. Retrieved from https://asian-efl-journal.com/wp-content/uploads/AEJ-TA-98-February-2017.pdf
Wacquant, L., & Akçaog˘lu, A. (2017). Practice and symbolic power in Bourdieu: The view from Berkeley. Journal of Classical Sociology, 17(1), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468795X16682145
Wekke, I. S. (2015). Arabic Teaching and Learning: A Model from Indonesian Muslim Minority. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 286–290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.236
Wicking, P. (2012). God in the classroom. The Language Teacher, 36(5), 35–38. https://jalt-publications.org/files/pdfarticle/38.2-2.pdf
Yosintha, R. (2020). Indonesian Students’ Attitudes towards EFL Learning in Response to Industry 5.0. Metathesis: Journal of English Language, Literature, and Teaching, 4(2), 163–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.31002/metathesis.v4i2.2360
Zarkasyi, H. F. (2015). Modern Pondok Pesantren: Maintaining Tradition in Modern System. TSAQAFAH, 11(2), 223–248.
Zein, S. (2019). English, multilingualism and globalisation in Indonesia. English Today, 35(1), 48–53. https://doi.org/10.1017/S026607841800010X